What is chronic kidney disease?
What is kidney failure?
Kidney failure is a condition where the kidneys stop working normally. There are two kinds of kidney failure: acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In both conditions, the kidneys fail to efficiently remove wastes and extra fluid from the body. Imbalances in the amounts of salt, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and acids may also occur in both.
Chronic kidney disease is characterized by either permanent kidney damage that developed progressively and slowly over time, or decreased level of kidney function with or without kidney damage for three months or more, with the potential to either cause progressive loss of kidney function or complications resulting from decreased kidney function…
What causes of CKD?
Older age, family history of CKD, history of acute renal failure, reduction in kidney mass and low birth weight place an individual susceptible to developing CKD. Diabetes, high blood pressure, autoimmune diseases, systemic infections, urinary tract infections, urinary stones, lower urinary tract obstruction, drug toxicity, and cancer can directly initiate kidney damage. Higher level of spillage of protein in the urine (albuminuria), higher blood pressure, poorly controlled diabetes and smoking can cause acceleration of kidney damage and faster decline in kidney function.
Diabetes is the number one cause of kidney disease, responsible for about 40% of all kidney failure. High blood pressure is the second cause, responsible for about 25%. Glomerulonephritis, a group of diseases that cause inflammation and damage to the kidney’s filtering units, is the third leading cause.
Other less common causes include:
Inherited diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease
Malformations during fetal development
Lupus and other diseases that affect the body’s immune system.
Obstructions caused by kidney stones, tumors or an enlarged prostate gland.
Repeated urinary infections.